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What is ovarian cyst ?

A fluid-filled sac that develops on or inside an ovary is called an ovarian cyst. It can appear at any time during the menstrual cycle and is a frequent occurrence. Larger or more noticeable ovarian cysts may need to be treated by a doctor, but the majority of benign cysts go away on their own. When symptoms do occur, they may include bloating, changes in bowel or urine habits and pelvic pain.

Symptoms of ovarian cyst

Pelvic Pain: Sharp or dull pain on the side of the ovary that is afflicted in the lower abdomen.

Bloating: An abdominal bulge or fullness sensation.

Urinary Changes: More frequent or urgent urination.

Changes in Bowel Habits: pressure in the rectum or difficulty passing stool.

Discomfort During Sexual Intercourse: Pain or discomfort during sexual contact.

Anomalies of the Menstrual Cycle: Menstrual pattern variations may be caused by ovarian cysts.

Painful Ovulation: When a cyst forms, some women may feel pain or discomfort during ovulation.

Causes of ovarian cyst

Follicular Cysts:   Form when a follicle, which contains an egg, fails to rupture and release the egg during the menstrual cycle.

Corpus Luteum Cysts: When the follicular sac doesn’t contract after the discharge of an egg, these cysts form.

Endometriosis:  Where tissue resembling the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus, endometriosis can result in the formation of ovarian cysts known as endometriomas.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: PCOS is a hormonal condition that can cause several little ovarian cysts to form.

Dermoid Cysts: These cysts, which can contain tissues like hair, skin or teeth are created by cells found in the egg.

Cystadenomas: These cysts may be filled with a watery substance and arise from ovarian tissue.

Pregnancy: To sustain the pregnancy until the placenta forms, a corpus luteum cyst may grow in the early stages of pregnancy.

Ovarian Tumours: – Rarely, tumours in / on the ovaries can lead to the formation of cysts.

Hormonal Imbalances: Ovarian cysts can arise as a result of hormonal variations, especially those associated with the menstrual cycle.

Pelvic Infections: – Cyst formation may result from infections affecting the fallopian tubes or ovaries.

Torsion: – Ovarian torsion, or the twisting of the ovary, can cause blood flow problems and increase the risk of cyst development.

Treatment for ovarian cysts


An “open cystectomy” is a surgical treatment where an ovarian cyst is removed by making a bigger abdominal incision.


To directly reach the ovarian cyst, a longer abdominal incision is created, usually several centimetres in length. Without using a laparoscope, the surgeon visually inspects the cyst and the surrounding structures.


Open cystectomy are chosen for larger cysts, complex cystic masses or when the laparoscopic approach is not feasible or safe.
Different types of ovarian cysts, such as endometriomas, cystadenomas, dermoid cysts, and other functional cysts, can all be treated with an open cystectomy.


gives the surgeon a clear view of the affected area and allows for direct inspection and manipulation of the cyst and surrounding tissues.


In general, open cystectomies require a lengthier recovery period than laparoscopic surgeries.Patients could stay in the hospital longer and feel more pain after surgery.


An ovarian cyst can be removed surgically using a less invasive technique called laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy.
Using this method, tiny abdominal incisions are made through which specialized surgical instruments and a laparoscope—a narrow, illuminated tube with a camera—are introduced.

It is commonly employed when an ovarian cyst is causing symptoms or concerns, and the goal is to remove the cyst while preserving as much healthy ovarian tissue as possible.

Abdominal incisions are made, usually measuring between 0.5 and 1.5 millimeters.

Through one of the incisions, a laparoscope is inserted to view the cyst and the surrounding structures.

To remove and dissect the cyst, specialized instruments are placed into the other incisions.

Why you should not delay ovarian cyst treatment

Rupture Risk: – Ovarian cysts have the potential to burst, resulting in abrupt and excruciating pain. Internal bleeding may result from this, necessitating immediate medical attention.

Persistent Symptoms: – Postponing treatment may increase discomfort and lower quality of life if an ovarian cyst is causing persistent symptoms including bloating, pelvic pain, or changes in bowel patterns.

Cancer Concerns: – While most ovarian cysts are benign, some may be cancerous or have the potential to become cancerous. Treating any malignancy requires early discovery and the right kind of care.

Impact on Fertility: – Endometriomas are among the cyst kinds that can have an impact on fertility. Appropriate management can help maintain reproductive function and healthy ovarian tissue.

Preventing Complications in Pregnancy: – In order to protect the health of the developing fetus as well as the mother, it is imperative that a pregnant woman who develops an ovarian cyst get medical assistance right away.

Avoiding Unnecessary Pain: – Pain and discomfort are possible side effects of ovarian cysts. Early intervention can reduce symptoms and enhance the patient’s general health.

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No, a cystectomy entails the removal of the cyst with the preservation of the healthy ovarian tissue. It's not the same as an oophorectomy, which involves removing one or both ovaries entirely.

 The length of recovery varies based on the size of the cyst, the method of surgery (open or laparoscopic), and the patient's condition. In most cases, patients can resume their regular activities in a few weeks.

 Following surgery, pain and discomfort are usual. Usually, doctors will prescribe painkillers to treat postoperative discomfort. People might experience discomfort at different levels.

 Cyst recurrence is possible even though the present cyst is removed during a cystectomy. It could be advised to schedule routine follow-up visits and monitoring in order to find any new cysts or developments.

 The surgical technique and each patient's recovery time will determine whether it is appropriate to resume regular activities, including exercise. As directed by their healthcare professional, patients are usually urged to gradually resume their activities.

 Fertility is affected by a variety of factors, including the type of cyst, the extent of surgery, and personal circumstances. For women who want to become fertile, conserving as much healthy ovarian tissue as possible is important.

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